Life and Journeys of Apostle Paul

C.10-33 AD Saul was born in Tarsus, C.10AD, shortly after the birth of Jesus Christ. Exact date is not known.

• Saul's father was of the tribe of Benjamin and he was a strict Pharisee, a Jew with unmixed blood. His father's character was that of a staunch and upright man.

• Saul was a citizen of Tarsus, the capital city of Celicia, a Roman land.
It was situated on the river Cydnus.

• Saul was sent to the Jewish School of Learning at Jerusalem to study law.

• He was around 13 years old when he began his studies under the well-known Gamaliel. Gamaliel was a rabbi and very well educated.

• After his studies he returned once more to Tarsus.

• Saul went to university at Tarsus and was well educated.

• Saul also became a staunch Pharisee like his father.

Early Apostolic History

C.33-35 AD Shortly after the death of Jesus, Saul returned to Jerusalem where Christianity was rapidly becoming widespread. • Saul watched and approved of the death of Stephen. He participated in the persecution of the Christians with great zeal. Acts 6:8-8:3
On the road to Damascus to arrest and persecute more Christians Saul had his conversion experience when he met Jesus in a blinding light. Acts 9:1-6

• The men with him stood speechless, hearing the voice, but seeing no one. Acts 9:7

• Jesus commissioned him and temporarily struck him blind. Acts 9:8

• He ordered him to go into Damascus and remain there for a period of time. Leading him by the hand, his men led him into Damascus where he stayed for three days without eating or drinking. Acts 9:9

• Ananias had a vision from the Lord telling him about Saul and his conversion and sent Ananias to minister to Saul. He was reluctant to go. Acts 9:10-16

• Ananias obeyed the Lord and went to Saul and ministered to him that he might regain his sight and be filled with the Holy Spirit. Acts 9:17

• Immediately scales fell from Saul’s eyes; he regained his sight, arose and was baptized. He took food and was strengthened. Acts 9:18-19a

• For several days Saul visited with the disciples and began to proclaim Jesus in the synagogues. People were amazed by his teaching! Acts 9:19b -22

• The Christians were wary of him because of his past persecutions of the Christians, but he preached Jesus as the Christ, confounding the Jews. Acts 9:22

• The Jews conspired against him to kill him. His disciples took him by night and let him down over the wall of the city in a basket. Acts 9:23-25; II Cor. 11:32-33

NOTE: About Saul’s names – Saul was his Gentile name; Paul was his Hebrew name. It was part way through his first missionary journey that he began to be referred to as Paul on a regular basis, later called an apostle, Romans 1:1(Paul and Barnabas probably became apostles at the time they were commissioned for their first missionary journey in Acts 13:1. Paul wrote Romans around the end of the third missionary journey and in that letter he calls himself an apostle.)

C.35-38AD Saul escaped into Arabia where he spent one to three years, teaching and studying and getting to know the Lord. Then he returned to Damascus. Galatians 1:16b-17 (From Paul’s testimony in Galatians.)

C.38AD Paul visited Jerusalem and spent fifteen days with Peter (Cephas) and James but he did not meet the main church at this time. Galatians 1:18

• Saul tried to associate with the disciples in Jerusalem, but they were afraid of him. Barnabas located Saul in Jerusalem and took him to meet the apostles and introduced Saul to them at that time. He ministered in Jerusalem for a while. Acts 9:26-28; Galatians 1:19-20

• The brethren learned that the Jews were attempting to put Saul to death. They immediately took Saul to Caesarea and put him on a ship to Tarsus, his home city. Acts 9:29-30

C.38-43AD While in Tarsus he preached and ministered in Cilicia and Syria in preparation for the coming missionary journeys he planned to take. Galatians 1:21-24

C.43-45AD The disciples heard about a church in Antioch that was flourishing and decided to dispatch Barnabas to investigate what was happening in Antioch. They were worried about a possible division in the church. He remained there to direct it. Acts 11:20-24

• Pleased with what he saw there and in need of a fellow helper, Barnabas went to Tarsus to find Paul. Barnabas found him and took him to Antioch to meet the church there. They stayed with the church for about a year and taught considerable numbers. Acts 11:25-26a

• It was at this time that believers were first called Christians. Paul made this his home church. Acts 11:26b

• Some prophets from Jerusalem visited Antioch. They indicated by the Holy Spirit that there would be a great famine in Judea and all over the world. The church of Antioch collected money from the believers and sent Saul and Barnabas to deliver the money for distribution to the needy in Jerusalem. Acts 11:27-30 (This was during the reign of Claudius.)

• NOTE: All dates are approximate as none of them have been or can be confirmed. For the most part dating was determined by who was ruling at the time!

C.46-49AD FIRST MISSIONARY JOURNEY - Act 13 to 15:35

• This journey began in Antioch from Saul's home church of believers. While they were ministering to the Lord and fasting. The Holy Spirit said, "Set apart for Me Barnabas and Saul (Paul) for the work which I have called them." This was the beginning of their first missionary journey together. Acts 13:1-3

• They left Antioch and went to Seleucia and sailed to Cyprus. Acts 13:4

• When they reached Salamis they proclaimed the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews. John Mark was with them as their helper. Acts 13:5

• They worked their way across Cyprus to Paphos where they were accosted by a magician named ElymasBar-Jesus. The Proconsul, Sergius Paulus, summoned them, seeking to hear the word of God. Elymas, the magician, tried to turn Sergius away from Saul and Barnabas. Saul, filled with the Holy Spirit spoke to Elymas and then temporarily blinded him. Witnessing the power of the Holy Spirit in Saul, Sergius believed them. Acts 13:6-12

• Paul, Barnabas and John sailed from Paphos and landed in Perga. John Mark left them there and returned to Jerusalem. No reason is given, but we find out later that Paul was not happy about it. He felt John had deserted them. Paul and Barnabas had to go on alone to complete the hardest part of the work. Acts 13:13(From this time on the Bible calls him Paul. No explanation.)

• They journeyed to Pisidia, Antioch and visited a synagogue there where Paul preached a sermon. The people were very thrilled and asked them to stay for another Sabbath and tell them more about the Way. This they agreed to do. Acts 15:13-44

• Jealous Jews caused a riot among the people resulting in Paul and Silas being driven from the city. Acts 13:45-50

• They went to Iconium where the disciples continued teaching, being filled with the Holy Spirit. The city was divided in their opinions and when the Jews, with their rulers, attempted to mistreat and to stone them, they fled to the region of Lyconia to Lystra and Derbe and the entire surrounding area, continuing to preach the gospel. Acts 13:51-14:1-7

• At Lystra Paul began performing miracles. The people were beginning to believe they were gods and wanted to make a sacrifice to them, including a priest of Zeus. With great difficulty Paul and Barnabas restrained them from doing this. Acts 14:8-18

• The Jews from Psidian Antioch and Iconium came and dragged Paul out of the city and stoned him, leaving him for dead. He arose and went back into the city. The next day Paul and Barnabas traveled to Derbe. After more teaching they returned through Lystra and Iconium, then back to Pisidia, Antioch encouraging and strengthening the new believers to continue in the faith as they went. Acts 14:19-23

• They continued on and passed through Pisidia. They then went to Perga in Pamphilia where they spoke the word before continuing on to Attalia. They sailed from Attalia to Antioch where they reported all the things that God was doing among the Gentiles. This ended the first missionary journey. They stayed a long time there with the disciples. Acts 14:24-28

NOTE: After an interval of fourteen years Paul went to Jerusalem with Barnabas and Titus to a council in Jerusalem. The 14 years started from his ministry in Tarsus. Galatians 2:1

C.50-53AD SECOND MISSIONARY JOURNEY - Acts 15:36 to 18:22

• Paul and Barnabas were chosen to meet with the council in Jerusalem concerning the problem of circumcision. They returned with the answer they needed, including a letter for the believers at Antioch from the council in Jerusalem. The next step was to get the decision to all the new believers they had talked to on their first journey. Plus, it was time to see how they were all doing and to further encourage them in the word of God. Thus it was that they were commissioned to make a second missionary journey. Acts 15:1-35

• An argument regarding taking John Mark with them caused a split between Paul and Barnabas, so Barnabas took John Mark and sailed to Cyprus. Acts 15:36-39

• Paul took Silas, traveling through Syria and Celicia on foot, strengthening the churches as they went. Acts 15:40-41

• They went through Derbe to Lystra where they met Timothy who was well spoken of by the brethren who were in Lystra and Iconium. Acts 16:1-2

• Taking Timothy with them, Paul and Silas passed through the cities delivering the decrees from the council in Jerusalem for them to observe. Acts 16:3-5

• From there they traveled through the Galatian and Phrygian regions, having been forbidden by the Holy Spirit to speak the word in Asia. They arrived in Mysia and were waiting to go north into Bithynia, but the Spirit of Jesus did not permit them to do so. Acts 16:6-7

• They passed by Mysia and went to Troas. While in Troas a vision appeared to Paul in the night and he received his calling to go to Macedonia. Acts 16:8-10

• Paul and Silas sailed from Troas past Samothrace, arriving the following day at Neapolis. From there they went to Philippi, a Roman colony, and stayed there many days. Acts 16:11-12

• They went down by the river to pray and met Lydia and went to stay with her. She and her family believed and were baptized. Acts 16:13-14

• On the way Paul commanded a spirit to come out of a young girl who was making a profit for her masters by telling fortunes. The angry masters saw their hope of profit was gone, so they seized Paul and Silas and dragged them before the authorities. Acts:16:15-19

• The magistrates ordered them to be beaten and thrown into prison, with their feet in stocks. God caused an earthquake which opened all the prison doors and the shackles on their feet. The jailor became a believer. The next day they were released. Acts 16:20-
• They stayed with Lydia long enough to encourage them all and departed. Acts 16:40

• They travelled through Amphipolis and Apollonia and arrived at Thessalonica. Acts 17:1

• Paul and Silas taught here. Once again jealous Jews stirred up trouble, and the brethren immediately sent Paul and Silas away by night to Berea. Acts:17:2-10

• Those same jealous Jews followed them to Berea and stirred up a great deal of trouble there as well. Acts 17:11-13

• The brethren there conducted Paul to Athens by sea while Silas and Timothy followed later. Acts 17:14-15

• While in Athens Paul preached his famous sermon on Mars Hill. Acts17:16-34

• While waiting for Timothy, Paul went on to Corinth where he met Aquila and his wife Priscilla. Acts 18:1-2

• He made tents with them there until Silas and Timothy arrived from Berea. Note: Tradition has it that Paul actually wove the mohair fabric for the tents and not the tents themselves. On the Sabbaths he preached in the local synagogue. Acts 18:3-4

• Once Timothy and Silas were there he went back into full-time preaching and teaching for a short period of time. They wanted him to stay longer, but he needed to get back to Antioch and said, Lord willing, he would be back to see them again later. Acts 18:5-18a

• From Cenchrea Paul, along with Aquila and Priscilla, sailed back towards Syria. Acts 18:18b

• When they stopped at Ephesus, Aquila and Priscilla stayed on at Ephesus, while Paul sailed on to Caesarea. Acts 18:19-21

• He greeted the church there, then he headed on up to Antioch by land, passing through Damascus on the way. Acts 18:22

C.51-53AD Paul wrote I and II Thessalonians while at his church in Antioch.

C.53-57AD Third Missionary Journey - Acts 18:23 to 21:14

• After spending some time in Antioch Paul began his third journey and passed successively through Galatia and Phrygia, strengthening all the churches. Acts 18:23

• He stayed in Ephesus for a period of three months, in public, teaching and performing miracles. When the people became a problem, Paul took his disciples to the School of Tyrannus and continued teaching and instructing them for a period of two more years. Acts 18:24-19:10

• While in Ephesus, miracles took place and God was being greatly magnified. Acts 19:11-20

• After these things were finished Paul purposed in his heart to go through Macedonia and Achaia again, then he said he would be going to Rome. Acts 19:21

• Paul sent Timothy and Erastus into Macedonia ahead of him, while he stayed on a bit longer in Asia. Acts 19:22

• There were many things that happened during this period of time. After a conflict regarding the silver shrines of their goddess, Artemis, and other similar items, Paul decided it was time to leave Ephesus and go into Macedonia himself. Acts 19:23-20:1

• He travelled through the towns of Macedonia, giving exhortations as he visited each one. He continued on to Greece. Acts 20:2

• He spent the next three months in that area. Acts 20:3a
From Thessalonica he most likely travelled northwest following the old Roman road through more of Macedonia to the border of Illyricum, perhaps even entering a ways to preach and teach. There are many little towns along that old road. See Romans 15:19

The trip possibly followed another road down the coast through Greece to Nicopolis, a town where he wishes to winter when on his final journeys after being acquitted in Rome. From there he could have continued on down to Athens and then to Corinth and Cenchrea. At this time, he most likely wrote I and II Corinthians and Galatians.

• While there, just before he was to sail to Syria, he heard of a plot that was formed against him, so he decided to return to Syria by going back through Macedonia by land instead. Acts 20:3b

• Paul sent some of his disciples on ahead of him to Troas. Luke would also be there, waiting, plus Timothy, Tychicus and Trophimus from Asia. Sopter of Berea, Aristarchus and Secundus of the Thessalonians and Gaius of Derbe accompanied him by land. Acts 20:4-5

• Paul actually sailed from Philippi just after the celebration of Unleavened Bread. (He might have passed through or stopped at Nicopolis, a coastal resort town, on the way north on a coastal Roman road to Macedonia [northern Greece] because Philippi was on another Roman Road that intersected east from the junction in Illyricum (a port area that had a ferry service to and from Italy.) [Paul had probably ministered at Nicopolis at some point during the previous three months and would have had friends there and also in other little towns along that route.] • NOTE: The same route back could have been just as dangerous for him as sailing would have been; however, no one would expect him to take the western coastal route to Philipi. It was a bit farther, but much safer, also allowing him to minister on the way to Philipi. There is no proof one way or another which way he went, but he was smart and very intelligent, and Paul loved to minister. The original route most people believe he took has no towns for ministry. I chose this route for my maps. Most Bibles do not...their choice.

• He joined the others in Troas. They spent seven days together there. Acts 20:6

• During one of Paul's talks to disciples at Troas, a young lad fell out of a third-story window and was killed. Paul went to him, and he came back to life. This impressed the disciples, and the people were very joyful at receiving the boy back alive. Paul continued talking until daybreak. Acts 20:7-12

• Once again the men with Paul sailed on a ship ahead of Paul to Assos. Paul preferred to walk to Assos and joined them on the ship there. Acts 20:13

• From Assos they sailed towards Miletus, stopping at Mitylene. Acts 20:14

• The next day they were opposite Cos, crossed over to Samos, and then, finally, arriving at Miletus. Acts 20:15

• Paul did not stop in at Ephesus this trip as he was anxious to get to Jerusalem, if possible, on the day of Pentecost. Acts 20:16

• While in Miletus, Paul sent for the disciples from Ephesus so he could talk to them one more time, explaining that he did not believe he would be seeing them again because he knew something was going to happen to him in Jerusalem. He strengthened them in the Lord and encouraged them to stand firm in their faith, to avoid false doctrines and those who would lead them astray. Acts 20:17-38

• From Miletus they sailed to Cos, heading the next day to Rhodes, then changing ships at Patara. Acts 21:1-2

• They passed Cyprus on their left and landed at Tyre to unload cargo. Acts 21:3

• They stayed at Tyre for seven days, fellowshipping with the disciples there. Acts 21:4-6

• They sailed next to Ptolemais, spending one day with the disciples there. Acts 21:7

• The following day they sailed to Caesarea, their final destination, staying with Philip the evangelist at his home for several days. The disciples there begged him not to continue on to Jerusalem as they feared for his life. Acts 21:8-14

• From Caesarea Paul walked to Jerusalem. Some of the disciples from Caesarea accompanied him. They arrived safely and were welcomed by all the brethren there. Acts 21:15-26

NOTE: Many things happened while in Jerusalem:

o Paul seized in the Temple. Acts 21:27-40
o Paul’s defence before the Jews. Acts 22:1-30
o Paul before the Council. Acts 23:1-11
o A conspiracy to kill Paul. Acts 23:12-22

C.55-56 Paul wrote I and II Corinthians and Galatians

C.57-58 Paul wrote Romans


• Paul was moved to Caesarea. Acts 23:23-35

• Paul before Felix. Acts 24:1-27

• After two years in prison in Caesarea, Paul was brought before Festus. Paul appealed to Ceasar. Acts 25:1-27

• Paul’s defence before Agrippa (Festus was present). Acts:26:1-29

• Agrippa told Festus that if Paul had not appealed to Caesar, he could have been set free. Acts 26:30-32

• Sailing from Caesarea, they briefly stopped at Sidon. Acts 27:1-3

• They sailed by Cyprus, keeping close to the leeside because the winds were so bad. Acts 27:4

• They passed the coasts of Celicia and Pamphylia and landed at Myra in Lycia. Acts 27:5

• At Myra they changed ships, an Alexandrian ship, heading for Italy. Acts 27:6

• After many days and hard sailing they arrived off the coast of Cnidus. The strong winds prevented sailing much farther, so they sailed under the shelter of Crete, off Salmone. Acts 27:7

• With great difficulty sailing past it, they came to Fair Havens, not far from the city of Lasea. Acts 17:8

• Considerable time passed and the voyage was now dangerous. Paul began to admonish them to stay put for the winter, warning them that there would be a loss of their ship and possibly many lives if they continued on. Of course they did not listen to Paul, a mere prisoner! Acts 27:9-11

• Since the harbour was not suitable for wintering, they voted to continue on sailing to Phoenix at the end of Crete where there was a better harbor. Acts 27:12-13

• They tried to stay close in to Crete but the storm drove them out in the middle of the sea, a long ways past Crete. They wound up having to let the ship be driven along by the fierce wind. They almost ran aground on a small island called Clauda. They managed to escape it. They undergirded the ship and let the anchors down and continued drifting in the wind. Acts 27:14-17

• Finally, they began to jettison overboard the ship’s cargo, then the ship’s tackle. Acts 27:18-19

• The storm battered them unmercifully for many days. Acts 27:20-26

• After fourteen days had passed they noticed that the water was getting shallower and started taking soundings. They stalled the ship's approach to the land until daylight and saw a beach for which they headed in order to ground the ship there. However, they ran onto a reef where two seas met and were firmly grounded with the back end of the ship being battered. Acts:27-41

• They all made it safely to the beach, some by swimming, others by floating in on boards from the ship. Acts 27:42-44

• The name of the island was Malta (Melita). Acts 28:1

• The natives were kind and kindled a big fire for them where they could get warmed and dried out. While here Paul was bitten by a venomous snake and nothing happened to him, to all their amazement. They thought he must be a god. Many miracles were performed and when it was time for them to leave, after three months, the people supplied all their needs. Meanwhile, they (Paul and Luke?) were guests of the island's leading man, Publius. Paul had the opportunity to bring healing to Publius’ father. Acts 28:2-10

• An Alexandrian ship that had wintered there on the island took Paul and all the prisoners on board to go to Rome. Acts 28:11

• They spent three days at Syracuse. Acts 28:12

• Then made a quick stop at Rhegium on the mainland of Italy. Acts 28:13a

• Two days later they arrived at Puteoli. Acts 28:13b

• They (Luke, the physician, was travelling with Paul) were invited to stay with brethren for the seven days they were there. (The ship was loading and unloading cargo.) Finally, they arrived at Rome. Acts 28:14

• The brethren in Rome heard about Paul's arrival in Rome and they came from all over to visit him and encourage him. Some came all the way from the Three Inns to visit him. While in Rome Paul was allowed to stay in his own rented house and receive his guests. He had a soldier that stayed with him guarding him. Acts 28:15-16

• He spent two years preaching and teaching from his home as the people came to visit him. Acts28:17-31

61AD Paul wrote Philippians, Philemon, Colossians and Ephesians.

62-66AD Paul is acquitted by Nero and spends the next three or four years in a final missionary trip to Spain and back to Macedonia and Ephesus - Evidence: Allusions in the Epistles and traditions found in fragments of documents that have come to light over the last years. NOTE: Luke was no longer travelling with Paul to record his journeys. He most likely returned home after Paul was released from prison. Luke was not only Paul’s physician, but he also was Paul’s lawyer.

• Paul desired to go to Spain - Rom. 15:24, 28.

• Announces his coming to Philemon (vs.22) and to the Philippians (2:23-24) - suggesting it was not an immediate trip but would be after his acquittal.

• Paul was probably planning another visit first - Spain.

• The probable journey itself and details will follow this section.

• Evidence showed Paul was in Spain for at least one year, allowing plenty of time for a trip to Macedonia and Colosse before his final arrest and martyrdom.

• During the Macedonia portion of the trip, Paul remained in Crete long enough to found new churches, leaving Titus in charge of organizing them. Titus 1:5

Upon his release from prison Paul possibly travelled to Spain first. Near the end of this time period, possibly 65-66AD, Paul wrote I Timothy and Titus.

• He also seems to have made a quick trip to Macedonia and Colossae in Asia. The probable details are given for a trip to Spain first, then his trip to Macedonia, his second and final arrest and his execution.

• A likely schedule of his journeys follows, with available evidence and scripture references. It will be up to you to decide. I believe that it did happen, even if not in the order given below.

• The Roman Emperor, Diocletian, not only tried to eliminate the Christians in Spain, but to also destroy all of their monuments and documents. A few fragments and documents did survive.

• Did this actually happen? It is reasonable to believe it did for the following reasons:

1 Possibility time wise.

2 Church was large and well-organized at a very early date, 150-300 AD.

3 Plans of Paul included a visit to Spain.

4 Early documents indicate that such a visit was made.

5 Local Spanish traditions speak of a visit by Paul.

6 Monuments put up in Spain in memory of Paul and his teachings.

• Evidence:

1 Testimony of Historian M. Diaz y Diaz says, "The evangelizing presence of Saint Paul in Hispania (Spain) seems to be beyond all reasonable doubt; the testimony, both contemporary and later, is conserved almost in its entirety by authors and texts unrelated to the Peninsula, and are therefore free of a biased interpretation, giving sufficient proof."

2 The early arrival of the Gospel in Spain could be the result of his having accomplished his purpose.

3 Meyrick places Paul in Spain for twelve months and stated he made an important contribution to the establishment of the church in Spain.

4 Other independent witnesses are found in Cyril of Jerusalem who writes, ", who from Jerusalem, and even unto Illyricum, fully preached the gospel, and instructed even imperial Rome, and carried the earnestness of his preaching as far as Spain, undergoing conflicts innumerable, and performing signs and wonders."

5 A letter written by Clement of Rome to the church in Corinth in 69AD indicates that Paul did in fact reach Spain. In his letter Clement states that "Paul also obtained the reward of patient endurance, after being thrown into jail seven times, compelled to flee, and stoned.
After preaching both in the east and west, he gained the illustrious reputation due to his faith, having taught righteousness to the whole world, and come to the extreme limit of the west, and suffered martyrdom under the prefects." The expression "extreme limit of the west" was commonly understood to be Hispania or Spain.

6 Chrysostom also writes about Paul, "For after he had been in Rome, he returned to Spain, but whether he came thence again into these parts, we know not." (Suggests a possible earlier visit?)

7 There is also an interesting fragment of a papyrus manuscript discovered in the Ambrosia Library (Italy) in 1700 by Domingo M. Muratori.
This Latin document dates around the year 140AD, judging by its content. Besides references to the four gospels and Paul's letter to the Romans, there appear five lines which end with the words "...when he (Paul) went to preach the Gospel in Spain.”

NOTE: This reference to a visit of Paul to Spain is strong evidence that such a trip did take place.

8 Finally, there are the local traditions.

Although those are of late origin, they give an idea of what people much closer to the time believed:

In Tarragon (Barcelona) there is a monument to Paul and the tradition that he preached there.

At the other extreme, in the church of the patron saint of Ecija, baptisms were done in the name of the Father, the Son and the Apostle Paul.

One plausible route for Paul's journey through Spain would be:

• Travel from Rome by sea entering Spain at Tarragona (Barcelona)

• Pass down the coast and around the bend to Cadiz

• Head north through Seville (Ecija), Cordoba, Merida (Madrid ?) and Zaragoza

• Leave Spain again from the port of Emporias on the coast between Barcelona and border of France

• Travel between Spain and Italy was a common occurrence and what happened in one country did not escape the notice of the other one.
At this time all of Italy, France and Spain were part of the Roman Empire, along with all the other areas where Paul preached and taught.

• Nothing escaped the eyes and ears of the Romans. They knew what Paul was doing.

In the beginning, they did not worry about it, but his final arrest and execution showed how quickly they learned to hate Christians.

Nero was an evil man. He sent Christians in the arena to face lions, roped some to tall poles around the ring of the arena, then set them on fire to provide light for the evening games.

He ended his life in the flames when Rome burned.

The evidence is strongly in favor of Paul having visited Spain. However, many others would have had to build on his initial effort to evangelize and strengthen the church.
In fact many others would have done the bulk of the work of building and organizing these churches, possibly some of Paul's converts from Rome took over the task once Paul was gone.

Second Phase of Paul's journey might be the following:

• We may readily believe that after Paul's trip to Spain he kept his promise to Philemon and on that occasion would have visited the churches of the valley of Lycus, Laodicea, Colossus and Hierapolis.

• The following facts seem indicated by the Pastorals:

o Paul remained in Crete exactly long enough to found new churches there. He left the care and organization of these churches to his fellow-worker Titus. Titus:1:5

o He then went to Ephesus and asked Timothy, who was already there, to remain until his return while he proceeded to Macedonia. I Tim. 1:3

o On this occasion he would have paid his promised visit to the Philippians, Phil. 2:24, and also to the Thessalonians.

o The letter to Titus and the First Epistle to Timothy must date from this period; they seem to have been written about the same time and shortly after his departure from Ephesus.
They were most likely sent from Corinth, but they could have been sent from anywhere in Macedonia as well.
In the letter to Titus Paul instructs Titus to join him at Nicopolis of Epirus where he intends to spend the winter.
Paul asks Titus to join him in Nicopolis. Titus 3:12

NOTE: Nicopolis was not very far from Thessalonica. He could go east to the western coast on the Roman Road and then south to Nicopolis on a branch highway from the Roman Road. He wanted to winter there. Titus 3:12.

He had been there during the third missionary journey and would have already planted a church there. It had a mild climate, making it ideal for getting away from the cold of winter.

There is no proof that he did winter there, but there is proof that he had been there, whether just on the third journey or on this journey as well. He had spent three months in this region during his third journey, and it was winter time.

o The following spring he must have carried out his plan to return to Asia. I Tim. 3:14-15

o At some point Paul passed through Troas and left his winter mantel and parchments with Carpus to keep for him. 2 Tim. 4:13

o He was most likely arrested here in Troas as he left behind his mantle, books and parchments with Carpus. He would have been unable to return for them. 2 Tim. 4:13

o Paul would have been taken from there to Ephesus to the prison.

o Trophimus, one of his travelling companions who was with him when he was arrested in Jerusalem was sick,

so Paul had to leave him behind in Ephesus when he was taken to Rome a second time.

o The Proconsul sent Paul to Rome for trial. He was accompanied by Titus, Luke the physician (and Paul's lawyer), and Tychicus.

NOTE: Luke had obviously been notified of Paul’s arrest and had returned to be with him to the end.

o At Rome we know that his imprisonment was short, that Paul was alone at his first hearing, his friends having scattered for various reasons. Luke was with him to the last.

o Paul felt that all human hope was lost, Rom. 4:6, and in his second epistle to Timothy, 2 Tim. 4:9-11, he begs Timothy to bring Mark with him to rejoin him as soon as possible, being sure to bring him his mantle, books and parchments that he had left with Carpus in Troas.

o There is some indication that Timothy did come and that he was put into prison, released before Paul was executed. Hebrews 13:23

The traditional place of his execution is shown as Aquae Salvae, now TreFontane, "Church of St. Paul without the Gates," just a few miles from the wall of the city.
Just recently the Roman Catholic church dug up the coffin of Paul and tested the remains with a laser, without opening the coffin.
It dated to the correct period of time; then he was transported to a different location for reburial.

Another possible route of Paul through Macedonia after leaving Spain:

• To give a clearer picture of Paul's last journey our fifth journey map shows one of many possible routes he could have followed.

• From Rome he travelled to Ephesus. The route is never mentioned; it could be overland as the map shows, or it could have been entirely by sea from Rome to Ephesus. That would be my choice. This trip was to be done quickly as he had a lot he wanted to accomplish before things got worse in Rome. Nero had started persecuting Christians, and it would not be very long before they would most likely come after him again, a final time.

• Once at Ephesus he would have carried out his promise to visit Philemon and once there most likely visited a few of the other churches in the valley as mentioned earlier in this article.

• Back to Ephesus and headed north for Troas and Macedonia. He left Timothy behind to care for the churches in Ephesus. 1Tim. 1:3.

• He would have visited all the churches he had planted, probably including Corinth.

• It was about this time that he visited Crete, so it is placed next on this journey. He would have visited Fair Haven at this time and planted a few more churches. He put Titus in charge to get things organized.

• Nicopolis was his next stop, where we planned to stay for the winter. Visitors to Nicopolis are shown the ruins of a small building where Paul supposedly went to pray.

• From Nicopolis back through Macedonia and over to Troas where he left his winter mantle, book and manuscripts with Carpus.

• At this point it is believed Paul was arrested, taken to Ephesus to the prison there to await his trial.
There is a place among the ruins in Ephesus that is pointed out to visitors where Paul was kept in prison before being sent to Rome...a slight confirmation of this particular theory.

• He sailed from Miletus for Rome, leaving one of his companions behind, Trophimus, who was sick. 2 Tim. 4:20

• Travelling with him were Titus, who left Crete to travel to Rome with him, Luke his physician and lawyer, and, finally, Tychicus.

• At his first defense he was alone except for Luke and felt hopeless and deserted. 2 Tim. 4:16

C. 66-67AD Paul wrote II Timothy, asking him to bring Mark with him, picking up his mantle, books and parchments from Troas, in order to bring them to him at the prison in Rome.
He urged Timothy to hurry and get there before winter.

• The following picture has recently been placed into Public Domain, so it has been included so that you can see the type of death Paul experienced. An unpleasant scene to say the least.
He was spared from the lions because he was a Roman citizen and, as such, deserved a swift and painless death.